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Perception of poverty. Individual, household and social enviromental determinants
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - 2
Anno: 2011
This paper aims to show to what extent self-perception of poverty is affected by respondent/household socio-economic characteristics and by social capital endowment of household place of residence in order to disclose the primary risk factors of family poverty status. Such evidence would help central and local government to define those economic and social goals which should receive more attention by current policies with the purpose of advancing towards the eradication of poverty. In order to purse this aim the logit model has been applied to analyze answers to the dichotomous transformation of the following question taken from the 2008 Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW) of the Bank of Italy CONSIDERING YOUR MONTHLY DISPOSABLE INCOME, IS YOUR HOUSEHOLD ABLE TO MAKE ENDS MEET: (1) WITH GREAT DIFFICULTY, (2) WITH DIFFICULTY, (3) WITH SOME DIFFICULTY, (4) WITHOUT DIFFICULTY, (5) WITH EASE, (6) WITH GREAT EASE? The results show a relevant effect on self-perception of poverty of both respondent /household socio-economic characteristics and social capital. In particular, the components social relationships and social engagement contribute to reduce the risk of a self-perceived poverty. Actually, networks characterized by relationships of trust are key determinants of human welfare as people socio-economic vulnerability is reduced as well as the resources they need only for the fact that they must deal with risk and avert major losses. Keywords: Self-perception of Poverty, Social Capital, Household Socio-Economic Characteristics, Policy-Makers
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L'Università Cattolica al tornante della storia
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | VITA E PENSIERO - 2011 - 3
Anno: 2011
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EDITORIALE: Vangelo e carità
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | LA RIVISTA DEL CLERO ITALIANO - 2011 - 3
Anno: 2011
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Note biografiche - Biographical notes
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2011 - 3. Di scena in scena
Anno: 2011
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Indice ragionato 2011 - Index 2011
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2011 - 3. Di scena in scena
Anno: 2011
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Special Issue: Partially ordered sets
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
Applied Statistics is certainly devoted to extract information from any kind of data. Data which characterize objects of interest. Ranking, i.e. finding a complete order among objects, belongs to the tasks of Applied Statistics. Not anticipating a historical research, it seems, however, as if the task of ranking in terms of the theory of partially ordered sets does not play that role in statistics which it should do, taking into account the enormous multitude, diversity and popularity of ranking studies. The idea is simple, not to say trivial. Let objects x1, …, xn be characterized by m data, attributes, say qj(j = l, …, m), then xi1 < xi2 if and only if qj (xi1) = qj (xi2) for all j, and with at least one qj* with a strict inequality. It can be easily seen that this definition (being the basis of the ‘‘Hasse diagram technique’’ (HDT)) does not guarantee that every object is in a
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A multi-criteria fuzzy approach for analyzing poverty structure
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
Poverty is a fuzzy and complex phenomenon which is intrinsically multidimensional. First attempts of tackling poverty with multidimensional measures trace back to the seventies with the conceptual writings on income poverty by Amartya Sen (1976). Since then much research has been devoted to answer questions of the type: (i) Who is poor? (ii) How poor is a poor? The measure of poverty and social exclusion is certainly a key point in poverty description. While much effort has been put in the last decades to the measurement of poverty, less attention has been paid to find relations among different poverty aspects. In this paper, we start from a classical definition of the population of the poor and we employ Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Analysis to provide an attempt to relate poverty aspects to one another, which we call a ‘structural representation of poverty’. Our focus is on the pattern of implications existing among different descriptors characterizing poverty aspects. We show how fuzzy relation theory and partially ordered set techniques are effective in representing complex relational structures and provide new insights into multidimensional poverty. As simple test cases the method is applied to data concerning two Italian regions based on EU-SILC database 2004. Keywords: Multidimensional Poverty, Multi-criteria Analysis, Poverty Structure, Ordinal Variables, Posets, Fuzzy Quasi-order Relations.
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Socio-economic evaluation with ordinal variables: integrating counting and poset approaches
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
The evaluation of material deprivation, quality of life and well-being very often requires to deal with multidimensional systems of ordinal variables, rather than with classical numerical datasets. This poses new statistical and methodological challenges, since classical evaluation tools are not designed to deal with this kind of data. The mainstream evaluation methodologies generally follow a counting approach, as in a recent proposal by Alkire and Foster pertaining to the evaluation of multidimensional poverty. Counting procedures are inspired by the composite indicator approach and share similar drawbacks with it, computing aggregated indicators that may be poorly reliable. A recent and alternative proposal is to address the ordinal evaluation problem through partial order theory which provides tools that prove more consistent with the discrete nature of the data. The goal of the present paper is thus to introduce the two proposals, showing how the evaluation methodology based on partial order theory can be integrated in the counting approach of Alkire and Foster. Keywords: Partial Order theory, Counting Approach, Evaluation, Material Deprivation, Quality of Life
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The bi-partial approach in clustering and ordering: the model and the algorithms
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
The paper outlines an approach, applicable to both the problem of clustering and to (‘‘optimum’’) ordering, which starts from a formulation of the objective function and the constraints, equivalent to a binary mathematical programming problem. This formulation, for both ordering and clustering, represents a number of very positive features, like possibility of dealing with incomplete and inconsistent data, while posing essential numerical difficulties. For clustering, it implies a globally optimal solution in that both cluster content and cluster number are obtained. We reformulate this problem by parameterising it and show that, under certain additional assumptions, an effective algorithm can be deduced for both clustering and ordering, which suboptimises the objective function. In the case of clustering, the algorithm is an analogue of the classical hierarchical merger procedures, while in the case of ordering it relies on iterations, in which just one object is moved. Some essential properties are given, along with a simple illustration. In spite of the analogy, the properties of the approach and the respective algorithms are different for the two cases considered, i.e. clustering and ordering. Keywords: Clustering, Ordering, Mathematical Programming, Parameterisation, Suboptimisation Algorithms, Objective Functions.
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Finding incomparable pairs of subsets by using Formal Concept Analysis
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
In the paper presented here, we use Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to solve a problem that arises when working with partially ordered sets (posets). In detail, the task here is to look for incomparable subsets which are related to a given poset. A way to solve this problem is to use FCA based on a context which can be derived in some steps from the _-matrix of the (simple directed) graph corresponding to the given poset. The requested incomparable subsets result from the set of concepts obtained from this context. For illustrative purposes, small toy data sets are presented. At the end, a real data application to environmental chemistry is given in detail. The data consist of ten chemicals found in the German river Main. As the result a set of twelve incomparable pairs of subsets are figured out. Keywords: Bipartite Graph, Adjacency Matrix, Formal Concept Analysis, Partially Ordered Set, Incomparability of Sets.
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The Copeland method as a relative and categorized ranking tool
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
This paper is concerned with introducing a modified Copeland method as a relative and categorized ranking tool. Using the concept of partially ordered sets and the social choice theory, the Copeland score ranking methodology is applied outside its usual political voting environment to rank objects in the scientific field. The ranking methodology was assessed using 45 data sets with different number of objects and indicators and compared with other methods. Results show that the Copeland method appears as a good and stable tool for ranking objects giving results comparable to the Dominance and the Simple Additive Ranking methods with the advantage of lower sensitivity and CPU time. Also, it solves the problem of isolated objects found in some Hasse diagrams. Keywords: Copeland Method, Hasse Diagram, Categorized Ranking, Relative Ranking, Sensitivity.
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Preliminary assessment of reliability importance measures using the Hasse Diagram Technique, Ordered Weighted Average and Copeland Scores
Gratis
digital
formato: Articolo | STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences
Anno: 2011
Importance Measures (IMs) are valuable tools that have been used to quantify and rank the components of a system with respect to their contribution to a considered measure of performance. For example, IMs have been used for characterizing the importance of element failures with respect to the overall system reliability. In general, different IMs based on different definitions may lead to different importance rankings of the components within a system. This fact could affect a decision-maker for achieving, for example, a better global performance level. In this paper we propose the use of the Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) to make a preliminary assessment for detecting possible conflicts among IM and selecting, if required, a convenient combination or aggregation of IMs, based on parametric or non-parametric techniques, such as Ordered Weighted Average (OWA) or Copeland Score (CS). Numerical examples illustrate the assessment. Keywords: Copeland Score, Hasse Diagram Technique, Importance Measures, Multi-Criteria Decision, Ordered Weighted Average (OWA).
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