# Libri in offerta

Perception of poverty. Individual, household and social enviromental determinants

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - 2

Anno:
2011

This paper aims to show to what extent self-perception of poverty is affected by respondent/household
socio-economic characteristics and by social capital endowment of household place of residence
in order to disclose the primary risk factors of family poverty status. Such evidence would
help central and local government to define those economic and social goals which should receive
more attention by current policies with the purpose of advancing towards the eradication of poverty.
In order to purse this aim the logit model has been applied to analyze answers to the dichotomous
transformation of the following question taken from the 2008 Survey on Household Income and
Wealth (SHIW) of the Bank of Italy CONSIDERING YOUR MONTHLY DISPOSABLE INCOME, IS YOUR HOUSEHOLD
ABLE TO MAKE ENDS MEET: (1) WITH GREAT DIFFICULTY, (2) WITH DIFFICULTY, (3) WITH SOME DIFFICULTY,
(4) WITHOUT DIFFICULTY, (5) WITH EASE, (6) WITH GREAT EASE? The results show a relevant effect
on self-perception of poverty of both respondent /household socio-economic characteristics and
social capital. In particular, the components social relationships and social engagement contribute
to reduce the risk of a self-perceived poverty. Actually, networks characterized by relationships of
trust are key determinants of human welfare as people socio-economic vulnerability is reduced as
well as the resources they need only for the fact that they must deal with risk and avert major
losses.
Keywords: Self-perception of Poverty, Social Capital, Household Socio-Economic Characteristics,
Policy-Makers

L'Università Cattolica al tornante della storia

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| VITA E PENSIERO - 2011 - 3

Anno:
2011

EDITORIALE: Vangelo e carità

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| LA RIVISTA DEL CLERO ITALIANO - 2011 - 3

Anno:
2011

Note biografiche - Biographical notes

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formato:
Articolo
| COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2011 - 3. Di scena in scena

Anno:
2011

Indice ragionato 2011 - Index 2011

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2011 - 3. Di scena in scena

Anno:
2011

Special Issue: Partially ordered sets

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Anno:
2011

Applied Statistics is certainly devoted to extract information from any kind of data.
Data which characterize objects of interest. Ranking, i.e. finding a complete order
among objects, belongs to the tasks of Applied Statistics. Not anticipating a historical
research, it seems, however, as if the task of ranking in terms of the theory of
partially ordered sets does not play that role in statistics which it should do, taking
into account the enormous multitude, diversity and popularity of ranking studies.
The idea is simple, not to say trivial. Let objects x1, …, xn be characterized by m data,
attributes, say qj(j = l, …, m), then xi1 < xi2 if and only if qj (xi1) = qj (xi2) for all j, and with at least one qj* with a strict inequality. It can be easily seen that this definition (being the basis of the ‘‘Hasse diagram technique’’ (HDT)) does not guarantee that every object is in a

A multi-criteria fuzzy approach for analyzing poverty structure

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Anno:
2011

Poverty is a fuzzy and complex phenomenon which is intrinsically multidimensional. First attempts
of tackling poverty with multidimensional measures trace back to the seventies with the conceptual
writings on income poverty by Amartya Sen (1976). Since then much research has been devoted to
answer questions of the type: (i) Who is poor? (ii) How poor is a poor? The measure of poverty
and social exclusion is certainly a key point in poverty description. While much effort has been put
in the last decades to the measurement of poverty, less attention has been paid to find relations
among different poverty aspects. In this paper, we start from a classical definition of the population
of the poor and we employ Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Analysis to provide an attempt to relate poverty aspects to one another, which we call a ‘structural representation of poverty’. Our focus is on the pattern of implications existing among different descriptors characterizing poverty aspects. We show how fuzzy relation theory and partially ordered set techniques are effective in representing complex relational structures and provide new insights into multidimensional poverty. As simple test cases the method is applied to data concerning two Italian regions based on EU-SILC database 2004.
Keywords: Multidimensional Poverty, Multi-criteria Analysis, Poverty Structure, Ordinal Variables, Posets, Fuzzy Quasi-order Relations.

Socio-economic evaluation with ordinal variables: integrating counting and poset approaches

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digital
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Anno:
2011

The evaluation of material deprivation, quality of life and well-being very often requires to deal with multidimensional systems of ordinal variables, rather than with classical numerical datasets. This poses new statistical and methodological challenges, since classical evaluation tools are not designed to deal with this kind of data. The mainstream evaluation methodologies generally follow a counting approach, as in a recent proposal by Alkire and Foster pertaining to the evaluation of
multidimensional poverty. Counting procedures are inspired by the composite indicator approach
and share similar drawbacks with it, computing aggregated indicators that may be poorly reliable.
A recent and alternative proposal is to address the ordinal evaluation problem through partial order
theory which provides tools that prove more consistent with the discrete nature of the data. The
goal of the present paper is thus to introduce the two proposals, showing how the evaluation methodology based on partial order theory can be integrated in the counting approach of Alkire and Foster.
Keywords: Partial Order theory, Counting Approach, Evaluation, Material Deprivation, Quality of
Life

The bi-partial approach in clustering and ordering: the model and the algorithms
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Gratis

digital
Anno:
2011

The paper outlines an approach, applicable to both the problem of clustering and to (‘‘optimum’’)
ordering, which starts from a formulation of the objective function and the constraints, equivalent to
a binary mathematical programming problem. This formulation, for both ordering and clustering,
represents a number of very positive features, like possibility of dealing with incomplete and inconsistent
data, while posing essential numerical difficulties. For clustering, it implies a globally optimal
solution in that both cluster content and cluster number are obtained. We reformulate this problem
by parameterising it and show that, under certain additional assumptions, an effective algorithm
can be deduced for both clustering and ordering, which suboptimises the objective function.
In the case of clustering, the algorithm is an analogue of the classical hierarchical merger procedures,
while in the case of ordering it relies on iterations, in which just one object is moved. Some
essential properties are given, along with a simple illustration. In spite of the analogy, the properties
of the approach and the respective algorithms are different for the two cases considered, i.e.
clustering and ordering.
Keywords: Clustering, Ordering, Mathematical Programming, Parameterisation, Suboptimisation Algorithms, Objective Functions.

Finding incomparable pairs of subsets by using Formal Concept Analysis
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Gratis

digital
Anno:
2011

In the paper presented here, we use Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to solve a problem that arises
when working with partially ordered sets (posets). In detail, the task here is to look for incomparable
subsets which are related to a given poset. A way to solve this problem is to use FCA based
on a context which can be derived in some steps from the _-matrix of the (simple directed) graph
corresponding to the given poset. The requested incomparable subsets result from the set of concepts
obtained from this context. For illustrative purposes, small toy data sets are presented. At the
end, a real data application to environmental chemistry is given in detail. The data consist of ten
chemicals found in the German river Main. As the result a set of twelve incomparable pairs of subsets are figured out.
Keywords: Bipartite Graph, Adjacency Matrix, Formal Concept Analysis, Partially Ordered Set, Incomparability of Sets.

The Copeland method as a relative and categorized ranking tool
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Gratis

digital
Anno:
2011

This paper is concerned with introducing a modified Copeland method as a relative and categorized
ranking tool. Using the concept of partially ordered sets and the social choice theory, the Copeland
score ranking methodology is applied outside its usual political voting environment to rank objects
in the scientific field. The ranking methodology was assessed using 45 data sets with different number of objects and indicators and compared with other methods. Results show that the Copeland
method appears as a good and stable tool for ranking objects giving results comparable to the
Dominance and the Simple Additive Ranking methods with the advantage of lower sensitivity and
CPU time. Also, it solves the problem of isolated objects found in some Hasse diagrams.
Keywords: Copeland Method, Hasse Diagram, Categorized Ranking, Relative Ranking, Sensitivity.

Preliminary assessment of reliability importance measures using the Hasse Diagram Technique, Ordered Weighted Average and Copeland Scores
formato:
Articolo
| STATISTICA & APPLICAZIONI - 2011 - Special issue. Partial orders in applied sciences

Gratis

digital
Anno:
2011

Importance Measures (IMs) are valuable tools that have been used to quantify and rank the components of a system with respect to their contribution to a considered measure of performance. For example,
IMs have been used for characterizing the importance of element failures with respect to the
overall system reliability. In general, different IMs based on different definitions may lead to different
importance rankings of the components within a system. This fact could affect a decision-maker
for achieving, for example, a better global performance level.
In this paper we propose the use of the Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) to make a preliminary assessment
for detecting possible conflicts among IM and selecting, if required, a convenient combination
or aggregation of IMs, based on parametric or non-parametric techniques, such as Ordered
Weighted Average (OWA) or Copeland Score (CS). Numerical examples illustrate the assessment.
Keywords: Copeland Score, Hasse Diagram Technique, Importance Measures, Multi-Criteria Decision, Ordered Weighted Average (OWA).

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