Identità civili ed eredità storiche
Over the last century, doctrinal debate on identity was especially focused on the analysis on social, political and economic changes in the local community, single states and continents. Personal identity was rich in certainties based on well-established persuasions shaped by a way of life limited to patriarchal family, parish and home town, to a visible and physically controllable localism. Individuals were not used to entertain themselves about their own identity inasmuch theirs was a membership destiny. The membership crisis brought about an identity crisis. Doctrinal debate centers in two main disciplines: psychology and sociology. So far, historical research has focused mainly on the issue of community membership and identity thus not providing with a useful reconstruction going beyond research hypotheses. Research on material history about mentality is necessary. The latter is particularly abundant in France especially on history of community mentality. Doctrinal debate on personal identity has involved especially philosophy, psychology, sociology, whereas doctrinal debate on national identity has involved political and historical science. The analysis starts with the study of doctrinal debate on identity and moves on to national identity between state and civic society. It ends up with the analysis on the relationship between civic culture and civic identity.