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Beccaria, la Chiesa cattolica e la pena di morte

digital Beccaria, la Chiesa cattolica e la pena di morte
Articolo
rivista JUS
fascicolo JUS - 2013 - 2
titolo Beccaria, la Chiesa cattolica e la pena di morte
autore
editore Vita e Pensiero
formato Articolo | Pdf
online da 02-2013
issn 00226955 (stampa)
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The essay is inspired by the volume of Mario Pisani, mentioned in the title of this contribution, that retraces the insertion of Cesare Beccaria’s masterpiece – On Crimes and Punishments – into the Index of Forbidden Books, due to the selection of the appointed Ecclesiastic Congregation. Specific attention is recalled by the recent identification of some related documents and, in particular, of the votum, written by Fr. Lazeri SJ, according to which the decision was taken on February 3, 1766. The paper examines Fr. Lazeri’s three argumentations that were not directly related to the theme of the humanization of criminal sanctions and to the issue of death penalty. Rather, these nuclei of reasoning took into consideration Beccaria’s work as an utilization of references ascribable to the Protestant cultural environment, as the evidence of the discontinuity of the philosopher’s proposals with the practice accepted by the Catholic Church, with particular attention to some marginal observations present in the work that were regarded as reprehensible. On this basis, the Author of the this essay analyzes, for comparison, the position expressed on death penalty in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, specifically in the Editio Typica (1997). On this subject, it is deemed that such a position considers extinct nowadays the conditions that may in theory, according to text no. 2267, allow the use of death penalty as a self-defense case. Indeed, it is upheld that the death penalty has nothing to do with self-defense that pertains to the contrast to an underway offensive conduct. The conclusion is the expectancy, also given various positions in favor of the abolition of death penalty expressed by the last pops and bishops, that the text of the Catechism could evolve toward the strict affirmation of the inadmissibility, also in principle, of the capital punishment. This would sound also in accordance with the theological reflection of the past few decades on the restorative and redeeming meaning of justice in the biblical perspective.

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