This paper is the publication of the British Museum figurative ostracon EA 23341. The sides of the ostracon present the sketches of scenes closely intertwined: the transport of a raw stone block by means of a sledge, and stonemasons at work. Egyptian tomb painting offers some evidence of dragging of statues, portable objects, and funerary equipment on sledges pulled by men. Representations of the transport of stone blocks are very rare in comparison. One example, though severely damaged, is represented on the walls of the tomb of Rekhmi ra in Thebes, which also features stonemasons at work. Interestingly, the sketches on EA 23341 mirror Rekhmira’s scenes. The drawing of the transport of the stone block is exceptionally valuable here as it may enable the reconstruction of the scene in Rekhmira’s tomb.
In this contribution, four terracotta statuettes from Tell el-Maskhuta are presented. In the first part, a Bes statuette, and a female head are described, whose meaning may be related to the Late and Ptolemaic Period domestic religious practices. In the second part, two female figurines are presented. Once called “concubines of the dead”, they are better defined as “fertility female figures”. Interestingly, one of them holds a little monkey. They may be dated to the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.
The paper focuses on how the royal characters are represented in the Westcar papyrus, based on their images in the late Middle Kingdom, after cultural history analysis. Thus, the Westcar papyrus is divided between a Pyramid age, represented by the Third and Fourth Dynasties, and the Age of Re, which is represented by the Fifth Dynasty, and it corresponds to the solar renaissance of the Thirteenth Dynastyideology of kingship and its centring over the sun worship once again.
A sentence of the ‘Dramatic Text’ of Abydos says, about the stars, that «their bones fall to earth when souls fall to earth» and then «they become fish». The connection between bones, souls and tears that fall from the sky as fish has not yet been explained. Instead, the word ‘bones’ of the Osireion has been amended with the word ‘evil’ based on Carlsberg Papyri. This study aims to give a new interpretation that justifies the lectio difficilior of the Osireion in the light of an astronomical phenomenon.
The significance of an early sentence in an Egyptian wisdom text (“speech is the hardest work”) becomes in another literary piece ultimately written during an unsettled historical period rendered as “speech is the most effective weapon”. More details concerning the tongue as the most powerful means to rule are added in support of the Egyptian high estimation of oratory, likely reflected by later quotations.
The contacts between Egypt and Milan go back to the Fifteenth century, and have ben particularly intense in the Nineteenth century, when scholars, travellers, and political refugees visited the country or lived in Cairo or in Alexandria. Many of them, as Acerbi or Vassalli, sent back to Milan their findings, that ended up in local collections and museums. The article presents, in an historical perspective, the intellectual milieu in which these contacts developed, and the formation of the Milanese collections. New data have been discovered on the provenance and the ways of arrival in town of specific items, as the Old Kingdom false-door of Nebi or the Busca papyrus.
Basing himself on some new readings of book numbers included in the endtitles of various papyri, the author proposes a new general structure for Philodemus’ On Rhetoric and shows that the treatise consisted of precisely – or at least – twenty books.
The article includes the re-edition and the in-depth study of three Greek documentary pa pyri published at the beginning of the last century. 1. BGU III (1903) 734 (Arsinoites, post 235p), register of confiscated buildings. 2. PSI VII (1925) 808 recto (Oxyrhynchites, 3rd cent. AD), land register (editio princeps); PSI VII 808 verso (Oxyrhynchites, 3rd cent. AD), account of a wine-producing farm. 3. P.Stras. I (1912) 31 (Ptolemais Euergetis, early 3rd cent. AD), register of confiscated buildings located in the Arsinoites metropolis.
Public notices were frequently posted in the cities, towns, and villages of Graeco-Roman Egypt. The available data makes it possible to answer several questions related to this topic: What material was used for posting notices? Did the authorities issue any instructions on the format of public notices? For how long should a notice be posted? This should make it possible to make a fresh evaluation of the famous Peukestas order, a notice posted in the Saqqâra religious complex and directed at Greek soldiers.
This paper aims to bring to light the figure of Aurelia Isidora through a detailed reading of the will of her husband Aurelius Hermogenes, preserved in an Oxyrhynchus Papyrus. It shows the local and Roman ways of life of a well-to-do Oxyrhynchus family, the concern of the deceased for his wife and children, but it is also a documentary example to study and analyse the life of Roman women at all stages of their lives.
A few months ago, I acquired a relatively large batch of correspondence addressed to Aristide Calderini by some of the most important scholars of the ancient world active in the first half of the twentieth century. Since the letters widely account for Calderini’s activity as di rector of «Aegyptus», this review immediately appeared the most suitable place to announce the unexpected discovery. The present contribution is to be considered preparatory to the critical edition of the texts, which will be fully published in one of the volumes of the series “Carteggi di Filologi”: here I provide only a survey of the material and an overview of the contents of each document in order to make the information contained in this correspondence promptly available to other scholars.
Giuseppe Passalacqua conducted some excavations in Egypt collecting a lot of antiquities, that he brought along to Paris. There he exhibited them, waiting for a convenient purchase offer. Thanks to three letters, filed in the Biblioteca degli Intronati in Siena, we learn that Passalacqua invited the ambassador of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Daniello Berlinghieri, to admire his collection and to attend the opening of his mummy, hoping he would recommend to the Grand Duke purchasing his Egyptian antiquities.
Alongside the traditional tripartite division of musical instruments into wind, string and percussion instruments, in ancient times there were other classification criteria for musical instruments, one of these, attributed to Aristoxenus of Taranto, was the one that saw the instruments divided into instruments natives and instruments of foreign origin, later became part of the Greek musical tradition. Among these, there were the pettide, the magade, the sambuca, the trigono.
Musical instruments have been and are the object of interest and study for their functioning and their sound characteristics. Much less known is the figure of the maker of musical instruments. Musical instruments, especially stringed and wind instruments, were complex and sophisticated products as they were composed of several parts assembled together, and were manufactured by skilled craftsmen in specialized workshops.
The music-silence dichotomy, also extended to musical instruments, was already known in the ancient world. In the musical technical lexicon of the ancient Greeks, alongside the numerous words used to indicate harmonies, musical instruments, sounds, etc., there are as many that indicate ‘absence’, ‘deprivation’ and which refer to music, words, musical instruments, terms that therefore indicate a deliberate or even forced silence.
This article analyzes the Greek version of a sentence by Brutus (PLUT. Brut., 22, 4) and comes to the conclusion that Plutarch misunderstood the Latin text (reported by Cic. ad Brut., 1, 17, 6: dominum ne parentem quidem maiores nostri voluerunt esse) perhaps due to the influence of the political propaganda of the Flavian age.