ABSTRACT: A widespread view, evident to be sure in a certain sector of American public opinion, sees Roman law as the main source of contemporary continental law, and as something that cannot be reconciled, or is even in direct confl ict with, the U.S. legal system. The author counters this impression with an approach consisting of two main lines of argument that in the end converge. First, he considers from an historical perspective the degree of penetration of Roman legal principles into English Common Law, which was later adopted in the United States. Second, he describes the trend which, from one side, has European Law increasingly emerging as a “court-based law”, and on the other, has U.S. law showing, in different ways, a greater preference for a more systematic organization of its rules and approach to their application. By way of these converging paths, the two legal systems are in the process of substantially modifying the homogeneous nature of their fundamental characters as legal systems, and are increasingly emphasizing the common qualities that Roman law can help develop further, in the context of a dialogue that is both balanced and productive.
KEY WORDS: Roman law, Common law, United States, US legal system.
SOMMARIO: 1. Diritto romano e Common Law – 2. Common Law e Civil Law: le radici comuni di una storia divisa – 3. Roman Law vs US’ Law?
ABSTRACT: By premising a blink at the judges who were active in late roman trial, the essay analyses Justinian’s constitutions in which lists of contemporary judges are held, in order to identify the subjects that are herein cited as being a part of the judicature. The paper aims to evaluate the extent of the thoroughness of Justinian’s lists and to inquire into the reason of some obscurities and omissions that are there noticeable.
KEY WORDS: Late Roman and Justinian’s Law, Judiciary.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione: rassegna dei giudici attivi nel processo cognitorio di epoca tarda (rinvio in relazione ai giudici delegati, locali, agli organi giudiziari che succedono nella previa competenza giurisdizionale del sovrano e ai diaitetaì) – 2. In particolare: i funzionari giusdicenti ... – 3. ... i iudices electi ... – 4. ... gli arbitri privati ... – 5. ... i giudici religiosi, canonici ed ebraici – 6. Le elencazioni degli organi giudicanti nelle costituzioni giustinianee: C.188.8.131.52, C.184.108.40.206 ... – 7. ... C.2.46.3. C.220.127.116.11 e Nov.113.1.1 – 8. Conclusioni: valutazione complessiva delle statuizioni in materia e ragione della loro parziale oscurità.
ABSTRACT: The intricate classical law of disinheritance (= exheredatio). The respective description offered by Gaius Institutes: liberi iam nati under ius civile, ius honorarium and the scheme provided by the law – lex Iunia Vellaea – to quasi postumi. §§ 130-132 of Gaius Institutes, on the postumi, are usually reconstructed on the basis of Justinian’s Institutes (I. 2.13.1). The information available shows, however, various contradictions and greatly differs from the one of Tit. ex corp. Ulp. 22.21-22, where the same topic is discussed. Some reasons are emerging to doubt about the usual text reconstruction
and a hypothesis of integration is offered, not according to the Justinian’s manual, but to the scheme provided by the Tituli. The widespread assumption that, in the lacuna that closes § 132, Gaius would have compared the situation of suae heredes postumae with the one of suae heredes iam natae, as it is stated in Epit. Gai 2.3.2, is confuted.
KEY WORDS: testamentary inheritance, exheredatio, postumus, palaeographic problems.
SOMMARIO: Premessa. – 1. Il regime complessivo dell’exheredatio in età classica. – 2. Gai. 2.130-132: un testo corrotto e problematico ricostruito sulla base di I. 2.13.1. – 3. L’informazione offerta da Tit. ex corp. Ulp. 22.21-22 in raffronto a quella contenuta nel manuale di Gaio: proposta di integrazione conforme al regime indicato dai Tituli. – 4. La lacuna che chiude il § 132: confutazione delle tradizionali ipotesi ricostruttive basate su Epit. Gai 2.3.2. – 5. Conclusioni.
ABSTRACT: Some important texts of Justinian’s Digest about rivers’ banks, riparian lands and flood problems will be re-examined considering the historical, juridical and epigraphic sources on the matter and the latest results of the archaeological and topographical research on rivers during the classical Roman empire : in particular, the juridical defi nitions of rivers’ banks, the problem of their exploitation for agriculture and commerce, their different regulation in the agri limitati and arcifi nii and the way adopted to avoid or reduce the damages caused by fl oods, inundations and land erosions will
be revised. In my opinion the essay shows that the Roman jurists were fully aware of the juridical and technical problems connected with the exploitation of rivers’ banks and, in order to avoid the consequences, sometimes devastating, of fl oods on the riparian lands, they often proposed equitable solutions conciliating the utilitas singulorum with the common interest
KEY WORDS: rivers’ banks, fl ood problems, Justinian’s Digest.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. La definizione della ripa fluminis in rapporto ai fenomeni fluviali – 3.Interventi pubblici e privati di tutela delle ripae.
ABSTRACT: Rome had nine aqueducts by the time of Frontinus, our main ancient source on water supply. The first aqueduct was built in the fourth century B.C. and the last one in the fi rst century A.D. These aqueducts used to carry water for many miles in order to provide a crowded urban population with relatively safe and potable water. On this theme, literature is generally vast and thorough, but, in my opinion, juridical problems (especially the ones concerning private law) need to be still further technically explained. For this reason, some important texts of Justinian’s Digest, on aqueducts and water supply to Roman citizens will be re-examined by considering historical, juridical and epigraphic sources on this matter.
KEY WORDS: aqueducts, water supply, Justinian’s Digest.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Regolazione della rete pubblica – 3. Disciplina delle infrastrutture private.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the fi gure of Francesco Saverio Bianchi – whether for his manifold activities (professor of Civil Law at Parma and Siena universities, judge of the Court of Cassation of Turin and Rome, State Councillor and President of the Council of State), or for his long earthly sojourn that brought him to witness and participate to the various seasons of the European juridical science from the 1840s to the beginning of 1900, or yet for the impressive number of papers and books he uninterruptedly wrote for half a century – means to be able to delineate the profile of the Italian jurist who shifted between two juridical experiences, the pre-unitary one, which formed him, and the national one. This paper will consider the fi gure of Bianchi as a theorist of civil law,
trying to catch the evolution of his thought, which is also made of changes of mind, as we shall see with reference to the crucial and extremely sensitive problem of the judge-law relationship. In terms of his scientifi c method, Bianchi is quite an original jurist. Once he took up the university chair he understood that the classical method of his masters, which consisted in commenting the rules following the order in the civil code, was unsatisfactory. He was deeply convinced that the educational-scientifi c analysis needs a more general and complete development; in brief, a methodology which allows the interpreter to move agilely inside the code and to build up his autonomous interpretation. This approach enabled him to elaborate a personal commentary, a text that reflects his thought, without inferiority complex towards the Francophone doctrine, which undoubtedly represents his first reference point.
KEY WORDS: Italian Civil Code of 1865; history of Italian civil law science; civil law of the nineteenth century.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. Placentia me genuit et edocuit… – 3. All’Università di Parma, un discepolo di Zachariae von Lingenthal – 4. Bianchi, ultimo cantore del codice del Ducato, e l’elaborazione dei commentari al codice civile unitario (1869-1895) – 5. Per tastare il polso della cultura e del metodo bianchiano: 5.1. La questione dei «principî generali di diritto» – 5.1.1. Il primo Bianchi. – 5.1.2. Il secondo Bianchi – 5.2. Tra diritto e politica, ovvero il problema del matrimonio civile – 5.3. Il diritto di proprietà – 6. Da Francesco Saverio a Ferdinando Bianchi: di padre in figlio. In guisa di conclusione.
ABSTRACT: The Author examines the academic career of Francesco Saverio Bianchi who taught civil law in the Universities of Parma (1855-1873) and Siena (1873-1880), before he became a magistrate and then a member of Senate. This article analyzes the scientifi c production of Bianchi (a strong and peculiar personality in the italian juridical culture of the later XIX century), the academic context in which he worked, his contribution in the establishment of important institutions (especially the “Circolo
Giuridico” in Siena, founded in 1878).
KEY WORDS: Francesco Saverio Bianchi; history of civil law; legal culture in XIX century; University of Parma; University of Siena.
SOMMARIO: 1. Tra accademia e magistratura – 2. Il periodo parmense – 3. Gli anni senesi (con particolare riguardo alla fondazione del «Circolo Giuridico»).
ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the life of Francesco Saverio Bianchi and his contribution to the Italian Consiglio di Stato. In fact, Francesco Saverio Bianchi’s activity, which spread over several political and institutional assignments as well as university career, involves a specifi c relevance when referred to the role played as a member of the Consiglio di Stato’s IV Sezione.
KEY WORDS: Consiglio di Stato, giurisdizione amministrativa, IV Sezione.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. Cenni biografi ci – 3. L’esperienza presso il Consiglio di Stato e l’istituzione della IV Sezione per la Giustizia amministrativa – 4. L’avvio dell’attività giurisdizionale del Consiglio di Stato tra opera di consolidamento del diritto amministrativo italiano ed esigenze di garanzia delle situazioni giuridiche soggettive – 5. Il contributo della prima giurisprudenza della IV Sezione in due decisioni paradigmatiche – 6. Conclusioni
ABSTRACT: The article deals with the concept of wage in the Italian legal order. About thirty years ago a number of decisions of the «Cassazione a Sezioni Unite», the Italian supreme Tribunal, strengthened the role of collective agreements in the defi nition of the wage structure: according to the Cassazione social partners enjoy a great freedom in the defi nition of the basis for the calculation of wage components even when the right to these components is attributed to the employee by statutory law, as it is the case, e.g., for the wage in the events of vocation. The author analyses the contribution of the
jurisprudence and the scholars since the mentioned decisions of the Cassazione. In the conclusions the author suggests that the jurisprudential orientation inaugurated by the Sezioni Unite has gone basically in the right direction, even if, in some respects, too far.
KEY WORDS: Wage, wage notion, wage structure, wage components, pay in the event of vocation, pay in the event of festivity, severance pay.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. La qualificazione degli emolumenti corrisposti dal datore di lavoro: l’onnicomprensività (onniretributività) della retribuzione-corrispettivo – 3. Dall’onnicomprensività della retribuzione-parametro alla sovranità dell’autonomia collettiva sulla composizione della retribuzione – 4. Principio di onnicomprensività e istituti retributivi indiretti di fonte legale per i quali manca una defi nizione della retribuzione-parametro: il trattamento retributivo in caso di ferie, malattia, infortunio, congedo di maternità, congedo matrimoniale, permessi sindacali – 5. Principio di onnicomprensività e istituti retributivi indiretti di fonte legale per i quali esiste una
definizione della retribuzione-parametro: il trattamento retributivo durante le festività, il TFR e l’indennità sostitutiva del preavviso – 6. Principio di onnicomprensività e istituti di retribuzione indiretta di fonte contrattuale collettiva: le mensilità aggiuntive – 7. Considerazioni conclusive: c’è ancora spazio per il principio di onnicomprensività della retribuzione?