The study, once highlighted the peculiar characteristics of the professional activity carried out for the benefit of the Holy See, analyzes the various types of work contracts at the Curia, both for an indefinite period, for a fixed term and for a project. The Author also focuses on the jurisdictional protection of the worker, with particular reference to the role of the Labour Office of the Apostolic See (ULSA) and to possible conflicts of jurisdiction that may arise above all with the Italian State. The conclusions show that the professional activity at the Curia is ecclesial in that it is given to the Church as an organism and not as an organization and, therefore, functional to the Magisterium of the Supreme Pontiff.
More than 700,000 of the lay faithful are employed by the institutions and works of the Catholic Church in Germany. In that context, the so-called “third way” was developed in order to provide a regulatory system for the drafting of collective labor agreements between ecclesiastical employers and their employees (catholic or not). This “third way” foresees a resolution to the inevitable competing interests arising from the Regulatory Commission for the Contractual Rights of Diocesan Workers – composed equally of employers and employees for an equilibrium of interests – rather than arising unilaterally from employers or from the intervention of labor unions. In the article, the Author explains the function and jurisprudence of the recently established (2005) Ecclesiastical Work Tribunals. The Ecclesiastical Work Tribunals judge alleged violations of these regulations established by the collective labor agreement, developed by the Regulatory Commission established in every diocese, and of the Regulations for Employee Representation which substitutes the law for government non-profits and the civil law for personal representation in public work relations in ecclesiastical entities.
In resuming, at a comparative level, the traditional theme of «illicit» evidence (or, according to the Anglo-American traditional terminology, the theme of «illegally obtained evidence»), the Author proposes to offer an updated (although brief) discussion, in the privileged perspective of the fundamental principles on which the modern rule of law and the «fair trial» constitutional guarantees are based. The only conceptual category able to allow, even in the absence of specific procedural prohibitions, a correct balance between the (due) search of the truth and the inadmissibility of any evidence (even if relevant, but anyway) formed, obtained or acquired with an open violation of fundamental human rights, is and remains – in the Author’s opinion – the «unconstitutionality» of evidence so acquired, whose evaluation is, in any case, (mandatorily) submitted to the prudent discretion of the trial judge.
The decision on the merits in proceedings concerning the annulment of acts consists also in the assessment and possibly in the creation of the relevance/effectiveness of the facts that are allegedly invalidating and of the contested act itself with regard to the underlying subjective situation, which is therefore also (at least partially) subject of the judgment (and of the res judicata).
The originality of modernity in Europe is the dialectic and osmosis between two distinct poles: the Churches and the States. This is the root of political-religious pluralism, of laïcité and of the secularization of nation-states. Political authority and religious authority can interface and dialogue in their common appeal to the dignity of work and of the person placed as the foundation of the law. The paper focuses on some principal characteristic, stratified between growth, refluxes and tragedy in order to reflect, briefly and simply, on the principles by which Europe intends to move forward: nation, person, state, well-being and well-living, freedom and personal responsibility for action, equality among citizens, the prevalence of logos over vis, the flourishing of the arts in the city of man. The seed of human rights and revolutions was sown in the soil of the res publica and the ius publicum and ever since the Reform Act the representation of interests had been consolidated, the guarantee of individual rights has been strengthened, solemnly declared inviolable/fundamental/perfect/enforceable before a judge instituted as an impartial arbitrator, by the third collocation assigned to the judiciary; the separation of powers has been established and the foundation of the idea of the constitution instituted. A central crux today, above all in a new project for Europe, with the evident need for is democratic reinforcement, is representative democracy with supplements of direct democracy and methods of deliberative-participatory democracy to be increased and improved. One node is the need to stem populisms and parties that have arisen and grown on a personal basis.
The tort of conversion is examined through five theses with the aim to show its relevance for commerce. It may appear counterintuitive that a strict liability tort facilitates the flow of goods. Yet, legal comparison suggests that there is a functional difference between conversion and the Roman vindication, which protects ownership. A comparison with the Roman delict of furtum, or theft, is arguably more appropriate to provide a clearer picture of conversion. Each thesis, even when it is rejected, contributes to corroborate the final thesis on the role of conversion as an institution that provides a higher level dynamicity than the systems which focus on vindication.