Multicultural societies are characterized by the presence of ‘‘new minorities’’, bearers of their own cultural identity, as well as marriage and family models inspired by principles often found in customary law or in the legal systems of the religions of the countries of origin. In the context of family relations, legal issues related to multiculturalism tend to be resolved by the courts by applying the general clause of international public policy. The latter, however, is still at the centre of intense elaboration by legal scholars and, above all, by case-law. From this point of view, the essay examines various aspects, including polygamic marriage and repudiation, seen from the point of view of public order, as well as the legal position of the minor. With regard to the latter subject, in particular, it is noted that the judge must make a delicate effort to balance the protection of the child’s interests and the safeguarding of his religious and cultural identity.
Media, ‘old’ and ‘new’, make an increasing use of terms such as ‘fake news’ and ‘posttruth’. It is the spy of a profound unease in the face of a phenomenon which is as vast and evergrowing, as it is complex and difficult to frame and understand through more traditional concepts. Our «risk society»’s (as well as ‘fear society’’s) pavlovian response to such issues is often to confront uncontrollable complexity through the most primitive and coarse amongst control strategies: criminal law, which provides an illusory promise of simplification. Even more so when confronted with what is perceived as an elusive and ubiquitous threat to peaceful social cohabitation. That the spreading of disinformation through (in particular) the new media and the Internet has the ability to undermine the very foundations of democracy (which needs a reasonable trust, by its citizens, in the idea of truth) cannot be gainsaid, as it is undeniable that disinformation also impinges on values that, for their high social relevance, have traditionally been the object (at least in civil law systems) of criminal law protection, such as individual reputations and privacy, individual as well as public health and safety, regularity of elections, etc. Law scholars are therefore called upon to analyse what, if any, real possibilities there are, under current conditions, for criminal law to provide the (besought) practical as well as cultural defence against the deterioration of social and political relations brought forth by the spreading of fake news. Building on some ‘classical’ definitions of ‘deviance’, and availing ourselves of a criminological analysis, we attempt here a multi-level discussion of the complex set of factors that generate and reinforce those mendacious, aggressive, irrational, and/or manipulating behaviours so frequent within the web. Only through a study of individual, and even more situational and systemic, features it may be possible to get a grasp of the structural aetiology of such widespread phenomena, knowledge of which appears indispensable to plan an (effective) preventive policy. The main tools of such a multi-level criminal policy should be, on the one hand, adequate (pre-penal) regulation of main organizational actors (first of all social media and big data companies) and, on the other, widespread systemic interventions, starting from a solid investment in culture and education. Only through such long-term policies can our citizens’ ‘alethic rights’ be granted, and democracy may hope to survive.
SEZIONE MONOGRAFICA. Successioni, contratto e responsabilità. Prospettive di riforma del codice civile alla luce del disegno di legge delega n. 1151/2019
The author introduces the symposium, which is dedicated to a proposal to reform the Italian civil code. Once described some methodological issues concerning the general problem of modifying a code, he briefly illustrates the topics covered by the papers.
The essay provides remarks on the creation of a national certificate of succession planned by the law proposal (d.d.l. delega) n. 1151/2019. In particular, attention is paid to the consequences on the rules of the “apparent” heir and to the problem of the competence to issue the certificate.
The proposal to introduce a certificate of inheritance in the Italian legal system (draft law D.d.l. n. 1151/2019) is a starting point for comparative reflections on how to provide reliable informations on the ownership of hereditary assets. The article first examines the French reform of 2001 regulating the act de notoriété taking inspiration from German hereditary certificate (Erbschein). Then, it outlines the contribution given by the adoption of the European Certificate of Succession (European Regulation of July 4, 2012, no. 650), for the issuing of which in Italy the notary public is competent, examining the advantages and the limits of this choice. Finally, it reflects on the importance to introduce a certificate of inheritance, to be drawn up by notarial deed, not only for cross-border successions but also for the definition of internal affairs.
This paper, after briefly tracing the main stages of pre-contractual liability in the Italian legal system and focusing on the issue of compatibility between pre-contractual liability and contract validity, deepens the foundation and limits of the information duties in the pre-contractual phase, introduced by the bill no. 1151/2019.
The essay examines the question of whether the provision (by Bill no. 1151/2019) of a general information duty during the negotiations is consistent with our legal system. So it is only in cases where compensation, for damages resulting from its violation, isn’t functional to correct the legal and economic balance established by valid contract and remains within the limits of the reliance interest protection. From this point of view the content of due information is determined considering the actual reliance of the person who deserves protection and the risks it raises for him and his assets.
Under directive 2005/29/CE (regulating unfair commercial practices) consumers have no private right of redress against the trader. The proposed revision of the Italian civil code (d.d.l. 1151/2019) aims to provide a solution to this lack of protection and opts for a remedy between nullity and more generic invalidity of contract. This writing deals with advantages and disadvantages of this proposal and suggests the adoption of a new remedy (unilateral termination of the contract), in order to avoid critical aspects of the current law and to facilitate consumers, usually reluctant to initiate private lawsuits.
The Author suggests a possible answer to the following questions raised by the proposed revision of the Italian civil code (d.d.l. S 1151/2019) concerning the validity of contracts concluded by virtue of an unfair commercial practice: is there really a need for a change in the rules currently in force? Is it appropriate to modify the rules governing the individual protection of the contracting party who has been the victim of an unfair commercial practice? What changes, if any, should be made to the current rules governing the individual protection of the contracting party who has been the victim of an unfair commercial practice?
The paper concerns the change of circumstances in the contract as considered by the latest Italian civil code reform project. In the past, the Italian doctrine, in order to overcome the rigidity of the rules on resolution of contracts, elaborated a preterlegal figure, the ‘‘presupposizione’’, able to free the parties from the contractual bond, similarly to other European legal systems (frustration of contract in common law, Wegfall der Geschäftsgrundlage in Germany, imprévision in France). In case of change of circumstances, the reform project introduces a legal duty to renegotiate the contract terms and the right to ask the judge to adjust the contract in case of lack of agreement. However this duty, derived from good faith, can lead to the risk of an authoritarian intervention by the judge on private autonomy.
The author deals with the new regulation of supervening unconscionability submitted by the law proposal no. 1151/2019. In particular, the essay identifies the boundaries for the legislative intervention and analyses the juridical pattern beneath the possible reform.
The essay analyses the new regulation of non-pecuniary damages submitted by the law proposal no. 1151/2019. Once explored the reasons why to intervene in the field of torts and liability for breach of contract, the author addresses the problem of non-pecuniary damages from a systematic perspective and suggests some de iure condendo solutions.
A recent bill, presented by the Italian Government in 2019 but not yet passed by the Italian Parliament, contains a series of principles according to which the Italian civil code should be revised (d.d.l. S. 1151 Delega al Governo per la revisione del codice civile). With regard to non-pecuniary damages, the bill aims to achieve a rationalization of the cases where such damages are granted, both in case of tortious and contractual liability. Since the Italian civil code entered into force in 1942, courts have developed rich case law on the question which should now be codified by referring broadly to the criteria that the courts have followed. This article discusses the need for reform in this area and makes a proposal for a new provision on non-pecuniary loss in the area of tort law. With regard to non-pecuniary loss caused by breach of contract, it is claimed that the question of recoverability of such loss should depend primarily on the common intention of the parties to be determined also on the basis of an interpretation according to good faith, since it is on the parties to decide which immaterial interests should be covered by the scope of protection of their contract.