The term «Governance» is frequently found in speeches and texts which, under different
circumstances, refer to regulatory issues of the complex contemporary society and to the
increasing frequency with which it organizes itself in Network structures. Hence, there is the
need to attribute this word with a conceptual and explanatory substrate, to avoid the risks of
indetermination and ambiguity. Obstacles to a synthetic definition of Governance firstly stem
from the varied situations in which it is applied and from the identity requests of the social
actors, which are increasing in frequency. Such difficulties are intrinsic to Governance, in that it
is not specific from an autonomous viewpoint. In fact, this definition is reflectively and necessarily
realized with its polar equivalent, the Government. The relationship of continuously reciprocal
generation between the two regulatory bodies can, thus, be defined as complementary
opposition. The relation described above also depends by the intersection that it generates,
applying itself to the three fundamental forms of exchange, i.e. community, market, and politics.
On such bases, it is possible to propose a classification of Governance in three applicative
forms: Social-Corporate- and Political-Governance. The idea of Governance and the diversified
features of its three forms can be then brought back to a unifying interpretation in the more
general and deep cultural realm of circularity paradigm.
The article deals with important changes taking place in the sociology of knowledge. Classic
sociology had a scientific dream, to mirror «facts». From Schuts on, social sciences focus rather
on common sense than on scientific knowledge, because everyday life is considered as the starting
point for every knowledge process. Anyway, it is agreed that facts are always modified by
our interpretation, that is by different points of view. NSSK stresses the importance of social
context in every scientific operation, both in hard and social sciences. The latter, however,
through reflexivity can show how facts are constructed even in laboratories. More radically,
Latour suggests the neologism «factiches» (between facts and fetiches) to indicate all human
products, both material and non material, in science and everyday life, in western or other cultures.
«Factiches» are constrictions, but partly transcend us and can modify us. Following
Knorr Cetina, this reflexive awareness must have consequences on methodology; if researchers cannot claim to mirror the world or to give a true vision of it, they can involve their communicative
context, giving voice to social actors. Objects can be promoted as subjects and interlocutors,
with whom a definition of reality can be negotiated and then shared.
The article deals with tradition and folk music. After a preliminary close examination regarding
the relationship among music, linguistic communication and rhythm, the essay shows that, in the age
of globalizzation, in which the experience understood as erfharung results less and less probable and
the continuous changes produce disorientation and a progressive weakening of the sense of social
affiliation, the rediscovery of the tradition represents one of the sources of identification for the construction
of the identity. Particularly, the values of authenticity and autonomy, attributed to traditional
music, constitute the central feature of the expressive identity. Among the treated matters, particular
attention is reserved to the main forms of expression of folk music as work of art. Finally, the
paper investigates the modalities of socialization to instruments of folk music: the concept of social
practice is used for underlining the great importance of «bodily apprehension» in the processes of
acquisition of the necessary techniques to play traditional instruments.
The social consequences of the progressive degradation of common natural resources (or
commons) are the focus of debate among scholars of environmental change. Towards the end of
the twentieth century, two areas of research on the commons consolidated: the Theory of
Common-Pool Resources and Environmental Sociology. On one hand, three decades of empirical
research have revealed many rich and complicated histories of commons management. Elinor
Ostrom and scholars of Indiana University have shown that the logic of commons management
depends on a set of assumptions about human motivation, about the rules governing the use of
the commons, about the character of the common resources and about institutional framework.
On the other hand, starting from Riley Dunlap, environmental sociology has investigated the
field of social impact of environmental crisis emphasizing the crucial role of the human social
behaviour to response environmental problems. These two strands of research have proceeded
independently of each other, but the complexity of the relationship between society and environment
now requires a rapprochement. This paper provides a necessarily selective overview of
this new integrated framework and examines the opportunities it offers.
Diversity can be dealt with as to its theoretical and conceptual as well as operational definition.
Some methodological and procedural remarks about diversity among people involved in
participatory action research must be also pointed out. It is well known that peculiar research approach aims at modifying the observed situation, particularly through a shared knowledge
production. In that perspective, some problematic key terms, such «action», «participation»
and «responsibility», must be clarified and practically dealt with. This paper tries to deal with
those problems and point out some ways of facing them by referring to practical experience.
The main questions pointed out deal with the differences in nature and social positions of both
individual and collective actors involved in an action research setting; their differences in
knowledge, interests and strategies; the conceptual, physical social and symbolic ambits in
which they act; the different resources, time horizons, and expectations which orientate their
The job market is changed. The increasing women’s entrance has modified its features and
dynamics, but this change it’s not complete and not ended yet. Although these changes, the job
world is always a male world. Women have to confront with big problems yet, to consolidate
and to assert their presence in it. Big problems both in quantitative terms and in qualitative
ones. The phenomenon of vertical and horizontal segregation (ceiling glass and wall glass) is
completely existing yet.
In spite of this, an increasing number of women invade public and private organizations
also in typically male sectors and positions of activity. This research is focused on personal and
professional courses of some of women-managers.
Gianni Gasparini is a sociologist and at the same time he is also a poet and a critic. The
sociological glares of its work become, in the virtuous encounter with the poetical pen, as many
literary reflectors on the human condition. It is necessary to comprise better, after the reading
of its poem One hundred kites, if with Gasparini the poetic writing becomes sociology and if
the sociology comes used for the construction of the poetic interlacing. If the poetry (and the
literature) sociology is made because it narrates sociological types or because it puts in scene
social processes sociological utopies like that many times over evoked of the «Community of
the kites» composed from one hundred individuals «united and distinguished/communicating
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