The definition of Trafficking in Human Beings in the Protocol of United Nations portays the adoption and the determination of the concepts of victim and trafficker by the international community. Despite the effort of the Protocol in providing an international definition of the phenomenon, the present article emphasizes the grey zone between vulnerability and proximity violence that permits the consensual exploitation of the victim by the trafficker. From the analysis of the concept of vulnerability and linking with the issue of proximity violence, in its specific acceptation of “proximity vulnerability”, it clearly emerges from the study of Romenian and Italian Court. The article analyzes the concept of vulnerability, in relation to that of proximity violence, and developing in a specific sense of “proximal vulnerability” which becomes evident through the analysis of the “medium” used by the trafficker. The analysis of the Romanian and Italian judgments – of which the article gives an account in a specific Section – seems to confirm the hypothesis. The APOV perpetrated by the exploiter/trafficker is immediately suffered by the most vulnerable subject, in a context of economic and cultural deprivation but, above all, in a situation of proximity violence made opaque by the manipulation exercised on the victim by the exploiter.
Older adults’ relationship with ICTs has been addressed by many disciplines and perspectives. Social research has focused at length on inequalities in terms of access and use, gradually overcoming an initial deterministic vision that used to negatively relate age with digital technologies. A recent systematic review of quantitative studies (Hunsaker - Hargittai, 2018) photographs improvements in terms of access, skills and uses among the elderly. A growth in qualitative studies has also been observed in recent years. Yet, they have been poorly systematised. In order to fill this gap, this article synthetizes the qualitative literature produced so far. Based on a systematic review fulfilled between November 2018 and January 2019, it synthetizes 25 studies identified from an initial collection of 237 articles. The reviewed body of literature is heterogeneous in relation to methodological issues and research domains. Empirical findings are indeed organized in four main categories: 1) features related to ICTs adoption, 2) variety of ICTs uses, 3) benefits related to ICTs uses and 4) digital learning. The article advocates the adoption of qualitative methods in this field of research. Given the growing diffusion of digital technologies, qualitative studies may indeed provide a deeper understanding about how ICTs have affected aging processes and older adults’ everyday lives.
In this article, I propose, first3,5 of all, to identify the passages in Max Weber’s works in which he makes more or less explicit reference to emotions and feelings (The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, the Intermediate Observations, Science as a Vocation, Politics as a Vocation, Economy and Society). I will then attempt to show that although emotions and feelings are evoked only here and there in these works and in somewhat rhapsodic terms, a more general reflection by Weber on the subject can be delineated: in short, a Weberian sociology of emotions, focusing in particular on the relationship between emotions and rationalization process.
The topic of borders has not been studied so much in sociology (Strassoldo 1971, 1976, 1987); this work deals with it in a multidisciplinary perspective. Although it can easily be linked to numerous and important sociological analysis of the migration dynamics (Ambrosini 2020; Cesareo 2015; Zanfrini 2015), here the reflection is focused on the transformative dynamics – not necessarily supported by migratory experiences – that social actors imagine to be feasible and try to put into action in order to improve their life conditions (van Gennep 1909; Turner 1972). In this perspective, the famous analysis made by Arjun Appadurai (2004), Amartya Sen (1991), Martha Nussbaum (1988) and other scholars were used as a reference. These scholars offered their contribution in discussing the topic of borders and the desire to cross them. Crossing the borders is an experience that involves identity, emotions, the re-appropriation of local social relationships, disorientation and meeting the radically Other (Remotti 2007, 2017; Bauman 1999; Elliott - Urry 2013; Di Nicola 2015).
The article represents a contribution to the study of the relationship between youth mobility and unequal trajectories through the development of a new conceptual framework based on the link between the theory of epistemological fallacy and that of Bourdieu. This approch allows to reveal the paradox of mobility that drives young people between the aspiration to mobility, as an improvement in their own life, and the reproduction of the structural factors that influence their success. The heuristic capacity of this theoretical proposal is verified through an empirical research to analyze the reproduction of inequalities within the European context and the role of the family and its influence on the success trajectories of the migration project. The study, based on a mixed method, was aimed at young Italians aged between 18 and 35 who study and/or work in London and Berlin.
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